How Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal Affected the Relationship Between the Government and the American People

February 10, 2013



In his Republican party nomination acceptance speech on 11th August 1928, Herbert Hoover claimed ‘[w]e in America today are nearer to the final triumph over poverty than ever before in the history of any land’ . On October 24th 1929 following the collapse of American Stock markets, Hoover’s optimistic reassurances sounded less triumphant as the […]

Dr Martin Luther King Jr’s ‘I Have a Dream’ Speech – A Critical Analysis

February 10, 2013



Martin Luther King’s I Have a Dream speech was delivered to a crowd of 200’000 civil rights activists and demonstrators gathered before the Lincoln Memorial in Washington on the 28th August 1963. The meeting sought to end the racial and economic injustices King described as ‘the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination’ and […]

Mr Gorbachev, Tear Down This Wall…

February 10, 2013



In his address to the Communist Party Central Council in 1983, General Secretary Yuri Andropov denounced the American President Ronald Reagan for accelerating the militarisation of the entire NATO bloc; ‘[w]hen Reagan came to the White House, he expressed himself in such a fashion that apparently there was nothing that he would discuss with the […]

American Hardcore: Loud, Political and Uncompromising

February 10, 2013



In 1980, the Bay Area Music Awards invited San Francisco’s hardcore punk band the Dead Kennedys to perform their debut single, ‘California Uber Alles’ at a significant music industry event. Frontman Jello Biafra theatrically interrupted the live performance to announce to the audience; ‘we’ve gotta prove we’re adults now, we’re not a punk rock band, […]

Space and Place: 1960s Garage Rock from the Pacific Northwest

February 10, 2013



In relation to this theme, space and place can be understood as; ‘the urban and rural spaces in which music is experienced, produced and consumed (…) [and] the recognition that musical processes take place within a particular space and place, where these processes are shaped both by specific musical practices and by the pressures and […]

‘Hurt’ by Johnny Cash – A Critical Review

February 10, 2013



Paul Friedlander’s methodology identifies three key foci for musical study; the song as text; the cultural filter; and the receptor culture or audience. It is easy to suppose listeners might attach greater significance to ‘Hurt’ following Johnny Cash’s death in 2003 and such latent emotional attachment to music exemplifies Friedlander’s view that meaning cannot be […]

‘Heard It Through The Grapevine’ – Political Masking, Lyrical Ambiguity and West African Oral Tradition in Black American Soul Music of the 1960s.

February 10, 2013



In 1937 the New York Teacher published a poem titled ‘Bitter Fruit’, written by a white Jewish school teacher named Abel Meeropol which expressed revulsion at a newspaper photograph depicting the lynching of two young Negro men in Marion, Indiana in 1930. Meeropol later set the poem to music and the new song ‘Strange Fruit’ […]